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CHAPTER 9 CARDIOVASCULAR

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Date Shared: 17 March 2018

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The tricuspid valve sits between the right atrium and right ventricle. The popliteal artery is the least common pulse point. An electrocardiogram records the electrical activity of the heart. The average adult heart rate is 60-100 bpm. The SA node, AV node, and atrioventricular bundle are specialized neuromuscular tissue. The passage of O2 and nutrients to the body takes place in the capillaries. The arteries transport blood from the ventricles to the aorta and then to all parts of the body. An irregular heart rhythm is aka as an arrhythmia or dysrhythmia. Most congenital heart defects occur prior to the 10th week of pregnancy. A dull, cramping pain in the hips, thighs, calves, or buttocks while moving and relieved with rest is known as claudication. If a fast heart rate is tachycardia, then a slow heart rate is bradycardia. Another name for the mitral valve is the bicuspid valve. An echocardiogram is a test used to analyze the size, shape and movement of the structures inside the heart. The valve which sits between the right atrium and right ventricle is called the tricuspid valve. Arteriosclerosis is hardening of the arteries from atherlosclerosis, or other disease processes. Cardiac enzymes is a blood test performed to determine myocardial damage. Troponin levels are the best indicators for myocardial damage. The ventricles are divided by the intraventricular septum. A sphygmomanometer is the device attached to the BP cuff to measure an arterial blood pressure. To increase the tone of the heart, cardiotonic medications are used. The sinoatrial node or SA node is the pacemaker of the heart. The radial pulse is the most common site for taking a pulse. In the term angina pectoris, the root "angin" means to choke. Myocardial Ischemia is a condition in which the myocardium or heart muscle is not receiving a sufficient amount of O2 and blood supply. The word part "-emia" means blood condtion. Left-sided heart failure is aka CHF or congested heart failure. The heartbeat is controlled by the Autonomic Nervous System. Hyperlipidemia is an excessive amount of fatty substances in the blood and can contribute to atherlosclerosis. The atria receive blood from the body. Inflammation of the heart muscle is called myocarditis. An MI or myocardial infarction is another name for heart attack. The word part "infarct" means the death or necrosis of a tissue. Angina is the most common symptom of a MI. Arteriosclerosis is the buildup of fatty substances and hardening of the walls of the arteries from other disease processes. The numerator of a blood pressure is called the systolic cycle. This is the contraction phase of the ventricles. The denominator of a blood pressure is called the diastolic or relaxing phase of the heart cycle. Hypotension is blood pressure less than 90/60 mmHg . Symptoms may include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, syncope, difficulty concentrating. A myocardial infarction or MI is a condition in which an area of the heart muscle dies or is permanently damages because of an inadequate supply of O2 and blood to that area. A portable device which records a patients EKG for 24 hours is called a holter monitor. It is important that the patient record the time and activity when the symptoms occur. The suffix "metry" means measurement. A Cardiologist is a physician who specializes in the study of the heart. The process of being closed is called an occlusion.

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17 March 2018

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