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Astronomy

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Date Shared: 26 October 2022

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The Sun is our nearest star, and much of what we know about stars comes from investigating the Sun. But there are vast numbers of stars and many are quite different from the Sun.In the night sky you can see up to 8000 stars on a clear night away from city lights. With a good light telescope this number increases dramatically.The next nearest star to Planet Earth is Proxima Centauri, which is about 40,000,000,000,000 km away.As distances between stars are vast, astronomers use units called light years (ly). A light year is the distancelight travels through space in one year. Light travels at 300,000 kilometres per second, so light travels 365 x 24 x 60 x 60 x 300,000 km in a year.1 ly ≈ 9,000,000,000,000 kmProxima Centauri is 4.3 ly away. Existing spacecraft travel at speeds of around 10 km/s. It would take 125,000 years to reach Proxima Centauri! A star is a huge ball of glowing gases. At the centre of the star, incredibly high temperatures and pressures maintain nuclear reactions.In an nuclear reaction matter is converted into vast amounts of energy. Much of this energy streams out into space as different types of radiation (light, gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet, infrared and radio waves).Life on Earth is dependent on the Sun as the source of light and warmth (infrared radiation). Our atmosphere protects us from other harmful types of radiation. Although stars may all look the same in the night sky, they vary in brightness, colour, size, mass, composition, temperature, and speed at which they are travelling.Astronomers learn a great deal about stars by collecting the light coming from them using powerful telescopes on Earth or on satellites (e.g. the Hubble space telescope). They also use special telescopes that detect other types of radiation coming from stars (e.g. radio and infrared waves).Stars can be classified according to their brightness, size and temperature. The diagram below shows the relative size of different stars.Stars above the horizontal line are brighter than the Sun. Stars to the left of the vertical line are hotter than the Sun.

Target Language or Knowledge:

Study this diagram showing the relative size, temperature and brightness of different types of stars Are blue stars hotter or cooler than red or yellow stars?
hotter
Study this diagram showing the relative size, temperature and brightness of different types of stars Are blue stars brighter or dimmer than red or yellow stars?
brighter
Study this diagram showing the relative size, temperature and brightness of different types of stars As stars get bigger along the main sequence, what trend is there in the temperature of the stars?
get hotter
Study this diagram showing the relative size, temperature and brightness of different types of stars As stars get smaller along the main sequence, what trend is there in their brightness?
get dimmer
Study this diagram showing the relative size, temperature and brightness of different types of stars Are giant and super-giant stars hotter than blue stars?
yes
Study this diagram showing the relative size, temperature and brightness of different types of stars Which type of stars become super-giants?
Sun like stars
The three sequences opposite show the life cycles of different size stars. What are all stars originally formed out of?
vast clouds of gas
The three sequences opposite show the life cycles of different size stars. What event marks the birth of a star?
start of a nuclear reaction
The three sequences opposite show the life cycles of different size stars. Which star has the longest lifespan?
star A
The three sequences opposite show the life cycles of different size stars. Our Sun is 5 billion years old; how far through its cycle is it?
halfway through its life
The three sequences opposite show the life cycles of different size stars. What process provides the energy that powers stars?
nuclear reactions
The three sequences opposite show the life cycles of different size stars. What is the end point of each of the life cycles?
Star A – white dwarf star/ Star B – neutron star/ Star C – black hole
The explosion of a massive star at the end of its life cycle
Supernova
what is a nebula?
a giant cloud of dust and gas in the space
A unit of length equal to the distance that light travels through space in one year.
Light-Year
When a supergiant runs out of fuel for fusion it will collapse in on itself and explode in a ....
supernova
What is the single most important factor controlling the path of life of a star?
mass
Which color star is the coldest?
Red Star
A collection of dust and gases where stars can form is called a what?
Nebula
Which group of stars would have the hottest temperature?
White Dwarfs
Where is our sun located?
Arm of the Milky Way Galaxy
The sun appears brighter than the other stars in our galaxy because it is?
Is closer to earth than other stars
What is the biggest kind of star in a galaxy called?
super giant star
. What are the three colours that stars can be?
blue, yellow, and red

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26 October 2022

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