Mammals and consumers

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Date Shared: 27 June 2022

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mechanical digestion what is it? where does it occur?
physical breakdown of food in mouth (teeth) and stomach (churning)
liver how does it help in digestion?
does not make enzymes but makes bile to emulsify fats to increase their SA
small intestine what is it? how does it help in digestion?
long tube with large SA due to villi to absorb digested food molecules
stomach what is it? how does it help in digestion?
muscular bag; physical and chemical digestion of food (protein)
pancreas - how does it help in digestion?
produces enzymes and NaHCO3 to neutralise acidic chyme
large intestine (colon) - what is its major job?
reabsorption of water (and useful minerals)
rectum - where is it? what does it do?
between large intestine and anus. stores faeces prior to egestion.
villi - what are they? where are they? what is their job?
small intestine. increase its SA for absorption of digested food
lipases enzymes that digest … to …
fats / lipids to fatty acids and glycerol
villi line the small intestine increasing sa for absorption of digested food 1. capillaries absorb… 2. lacteal absorbs….
1. sugars & amino acids 2. fatty acids & glycerol
proteases are enzymes that digest … to …
proteins to peptides OR peptides to amino acids
carbohydrases; enzymes that digest … to …
starch to sugars or larger sugars to simpler sugars
bile - where is it produced? stored? what are 2 functions?
liver gall bladder emulsify fats and neutralise acidic chyme
hydrochloric acid, HCl where is it produced? what are 2 functions?
pits in stomach wall; helps pepsin digest protein and kills microbes
proteins are digested to … and then to …
peptides amino acids
why does the pH of the chyme have to be different in different parts of the digestive system?
different enzymes need different pH levels to work
what happens to enzymes above certain temperatures? is this permanent?
denatured yes – permanent
what is peristalsis? or why could you eat standing on your head?
rhythmic contractions of wall of digestive system that pushes food along
name of enzyme type made by the pancreas and small intestine that digests fats
tube between the mouth and stomach. food is moved along it by peristalsis, waves of muscular contractions.
major role in digestive process is to provide bile to the small intestine, to aid fat digestion. bile emulsifies fats to increase their sa. bile is alkaline – neutralises acid stomach contents.
provides a potent mixture of enzymes to the small intestine for digestion of fats, protein and carbohydrates. produces alkaline nahco3 to neutralise acid stomach contents.
Muscular bag churns & mixes – _mechanical digestion. Enzymatic digestion of proteins occurs by PEPSIN and foodstuffs are reduced to liquid form. Contains HCl. Walls coated in mucus
where final stages of enzymatic digestion occur & almost all nutrients are absorbed; lined with villi to increase SA for absorption
small intestine
water is absorbed, bacterial fermentation takes place and compaction of wastes forms the faeces.
large intestine
carbohydrates are broken down into … by carbohydrases
soluble single sugars such as glucose
what word means “food is taken into the mouth”?
physical and chemical (enzymes) breaking down of food
lipids can be broken down into…
fatty acids and glycerol
occurs when food is broken down into smaller pieces by the teeth or the muscle action of the stomach wall
physical / mechanical digestion
soluble amino acids, sugars, fatty acids and glycerol are used by cells for …….. and …..
energy and growth
the shape, structure, number and position of ……. vary, depending on what the mammals diet mainly consists of.
herbivores need to break down the tough ……. cell wall of the plant to access the available energy. their modified molars and jaw allows them to do this.
carnivores need to be able to catch, kill, tear, and rip flesh off other animals they catch and kill; teeth type used are the …. teeth
carnivores need to be able to cut flesh; teeth acting like scissors are the …. teeth
carnassial / molars
small soluble food molecules enter cells and used for growth, repair and cellular respiration
undigested food such as plant fibre leaves the anus as faeces
the organ system that transports material in blood such as food or oxygen to every cell in the body and removes waste such as carbon dioxide
circulatory system
system that gets oxygen into the body and removes carbon dioxide
respiratory system

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27 June 2022

crillstone Author Country Flag New Zealand

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