Cardiovascular System

Cloze Test Worksheet

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Date Shared: 31 August 2020

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The cardiovascular system consists of (1) the heart, which pumps blood, and (2) the blood vessels, through which the blood flows. The beating of the heart sends blood into the blood vessels. Functions of the Cardiovascular System Transport: The cardiovascular system not only transports oxygen to the cells of the body but also removes carbon dioxide and other waste products of metabolism. Protection: The cardiovascular system transports the cells of the immune system. Regulation: The cardiovascular system participates in the homeostasis of a variety of the body’s conditions, including temperature, pH balance, and water and electrolyte levels. The lymphatic system assists the cardiovascular system because the lymphatic vessels collect excess interstitial fluid and return it to the cardiovascular system. The Types of Blood Vessels -An artery is a blood vessel that transports blood away from the heart. -The arterial wall has three layers, the innermost of which is a thin layer of cells called endothelium. Endothelium is surrounded by a relatively thick middle layer of smooth muscle and elastic tissue. -Arterioles are small arteries barely visible to the naked eye. Whereas the middle layer of arterioles has some elastic tissue, it is composed mostly of smooth muscle. -Arterioles branch into capillaries, the smallest of the blood vessels. -Each capillary is an extremely narrow, microscopic tube with a wall composed only of endothelium. - Capillary beds (networks of many capillaries) are present in all regions of the body. -Rings of muscle called precapillary sphincters control the blood flow through a capillary bed -When a capillary bed is closed, the blood moves to an area where gas exchange is needed, going directly from arteriole to venule through a pathway called an arteriovenous shunt. -Veins are blood vessels that return blood to the heart. -Venules are small veins that drain blood from the capillaries and then join to form a vein. -The walls of both veins and venules have the same three layers as arteries. -Because the blood leaving the capillaries is usually under low pressure, veins often have valves, which allow blood to flow only toward the heart when open and prevent backward flow of blood when closed.

cardiovascular heart vessels blood Transport Protection Regulation lymphatic artery away wall three endothelium smooth elastic -Arterioles -Arterioles capillaries smallest capillary endothelium beds regions -Rings sphincters closed arteriovenous -Veins -Venules veins arteries low valves toward backward

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31 August 2020

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