Cloze Test Worksheet
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Date Shared: 30 July 2019
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There was a vast human diversity among the peoples thrown into contact with one another in the NewWorld. Exploration and settlement took place in an era of almost constant warfare among European nations, eachracked by internal religious, political, and regional conflicts. Native Americans and Africans consisted of numerous groups with their own languages and cultures. They were as likely to fight one another as to unite against the European newcomers. All these peoples were changed by their integration into the new Atlantic economy. The complex interactions of Europeans, American Indians, and Africans would shape American history during the colonial era. Instructions: Using your textbook "Give Me Liberty" fill in the blanks for Ch. 1 The New World.
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A New World
Chapter Study Outline
I. [Introduction: Columbian Exchange]
II. The First Americans
1. The Settling of the Americas
"Indians" settled the New World between 15,000 and 60,000 years ago
2. Indian Societies of the Americas
North and South American societies built roads, trade networks, and irrigation systems.
Societies from Mexico and areas south were grander in scale and organization than those north of Mexico.
Indians north of Mexico lacked literacy, metal tools, and scientific knowledge necessary for long-distance navigation.
3. Mound Builders of the Mississippi River Valley
Built approximately 3,500 years ago along the Mississippi River in modern-day Louisiana, a community known today as Poverty Point was a trading center for the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys.
Located near present-day St. Louis, the city known as Cahokia flourished with a population of 10,000-30,000 around the year 1200.
4. Western Indians
Hopi and Zuni ancestors settled around present-day Arizona and New Mexico and built large planned towns with multiple-family dwellings, and traded with peoples as far away as Mississippi and central Mexico.
5. Indians of Eastern North America
Indian tribes living in the eastern part of North America sustained themselves with a diet of corn, squash, and beans and supplemented it by fishing and hunting.
Tribes frequently warred with one another; however, there were also many loose alliances.
Indians saw themselves as one group among many; the sheer diversity seen by the Europeans upon their arrival was remarkable.
6. Native American Religion
Religious ceremonies were often directly related to farming and hunting.
Those who were believed to hold special spiritual powers held positions of respect and authority.
7. Land and Property
The idea of owning private property was foreign to Indians.
Indians believed land was a common resource, not an economic commodity.
Wealth mattered little in Indian societies, and generosity was far more important.
8. Gender Relations
Women could engage in premarital sex and choose to divorce their husbands, and most Indian societies were matrilineal.
Since men were often away on hunts, women attended to the agricultural duties, as well as the household duties.
9. European Views of the Indians
Europeans felt that Indians lacked genuine religion.
Europeans claimed that Indians did not "use" the land and thus had no claim to it.
Europeans viewed Indian men as weak and Indian women as mistreated.
III. Indian Freedom, European Freedom
1. Indian Freedom
Europeans concluded that the notion of freedom was alien to Indian societies.
European understanding of freedom was based on ideas of personal independence and the ownership of private property-ideas foreign to Indians.
2. Christian Liberty
Europeans believed that to embrace Christ was to provide freedom from sin.
"Christian liberty" had no connection to later ideas of religious tolerance.
3. Freedom and Authority
Europeans claimed that obedience to law was another definition of freedom
Under English law, women held very few rights and were submissive to their husbands.
4. Liberty and Liberties
Liberty came from knowing one's place in a hierarchical society and fulfilling duties appropriate to one's rank.
Numerous modern civil liberties (such as freedom of worship and of the press) did not exist.
IV. The Expansion of Europe
1. Chinese and Portuguese Navigation
Chinese admiral Zheng He led seven naval expeditions into the Indian Ocean between 1405 and 1433, even exploring East Africa on the sixth voyage.
The caravel, compass, and quadrant made travel along the African coast possible for the Portuguese in the early fifteenth century.
The Portuguese established trading posts, "factories," along the western coast of Africa.
Portugal began colonizing Atlantic islands and established plantations worked by slaves.
2. Freedom and Slavery in Africa
Slavery was already one form of labor in Africa before the Europeans came.
The arrival of the Portuguese accelerated the buying and selling of slaves within Africa.
By the time Vasco da Gama sailed to India in 1498, Portugal had established a vast trading empire.
3. The Voyages of Columbus
Christopher Columbus, an Italian, got financial support from King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain.
In the same year, 1492, the king and queen completed the reconquista.
Columbus in the New World
1. Columbus landed on Hispaniola in 1492 and colonization began the next year.
Nicolas de Ovando established a permanent base in Hispaniola in 1502.
Amerigo Vespucci sailed along the coast of South America between 1499 and 1502, and the New World came to be called America.
2. Exploration and Conquest
News could now travel quickly, especially with the invention of Gutenberg's movable-type printing press in the 1430s.
John Cabot had traveled to Newfoundland in 1497 and soon many Europeans were exploring the New World.
Balboa trekked across Panama and was the first European to see the Pacific Ocean. Magellan led an expedition to sail around the world.
Two Spanish conquistadores, Cortés and Pizarro, led devastating expeditions against the Aztec and Inca civilizations, respectively, in the early 1500s.
3. The Demographic Disaster
The Columbian Exchange transferred not only plants and animals, but also diseases, such as smallpox and influenza.
The native populations were significantly depleted through wars, enslavement, and disease.
VI. The Spanish Empire
1. Governing Spanish America
Spain established a stable government modeled after Spanish home rule and absolutism.
Power flowed from the king to the Council of the Indies to viceroys to local officials.
The Catholic Church played a significant role in the administration of Spanish colonies.
2. Colonists and Indians in Spanish America
Gold and silver mining was the primary economy in Spanish America.
Mines were worked by Indians.
Many Spaniards came to the New World for easier social mobility.
Indian inhabitants always outnumbered European colonists and their descendants in Spanish America.
Spanish America evolved into a hybrid culture-part Indian, part Spanish, and, in places, part African.
Mestizos are persons of mixed Indian and Spanish origin.
3. Justifications for Conquest
To justify their claims to land that belonged to someone else, the Spanish relied on cultural superiority, missionary zeal, and violence.
A missionary element existed from the church's long holy war against Islam, and was renewed with the Protestant Reformation in the sixteenth century.
A primary aim of the Spaniards was to convert the Indians to the "true faith."
4. Piety and Profit
The souls to be saved could also be a labor force in the gold and silver mines.
Bartolomé de Las Casas wrote about the injustices of Spanish rule toward the Indians.
He believed that "the entire human race is one," but favored African slavery.
5. Reforming the Empire
Las Casas's writings encouraged the 1542 New Laws, which forbade the enslavement of Indians.
The Black Legend was an image, put forth in part by Las Casas, that Spain was a uniquely brutal and exploitive colonizer.
6. Exploring North America
Spanish explorers migrated into what is now the United States in search of gold; first was Juan Ponce de León in Florida (1513).
Large Spanish expeditions traveled through Florida, the Gulf of Mexico region, and the Southwest (1520s-1540s).
These expeditions, particularly Hernando de Soto's, brutalized Indians and spread deadly diseases.
7. Spain in Florida and the Southwest
Florida, the first present-day U.S. area colonized by Spain, had forts as early as the 1560s to protect Spanish treasure fleets from pirates.
As late as 1763, Spanish Florida had only 4,000 inhabitants of European descent.
Juan de Oñate led settlers into present-day New Mexico (1598).
Oñate destroyed Acoma, a centuries-old Indian city, in response to an attack.
8. The Pueblo Revolt
In 1680, Pueblo Indians, led by Popé, rebelled against the Spanish colonists in present-day New Mexico for forcing the Indians to convert to Christianity.
VII. The French and Dutch Empires
1. French Colonization
Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec in 1608, and others explored and claimed the entire Mississippi Valley for France.
Relatively few French colonists arrived in New France. The white population in 1700 was only 19,000.
2. New France and the Indians
With few settlers, friendly relations with the Indians were essential for France.
The French prided themselves on adopting a more humane policy toward the Indians than Spain, yet their contact still brought disease and their fur trading depleted the native animal population.
The métis were children of Indian women and French men.
3. The Dutch Empire
Henry Hudson sailed into New York Harbor and claimed the area for the Netherlands (1609).
The Dutch West India Company settled colonists on Manhattan Island (1626).
The Netherlands dominated international commerce in the early seventeenth century.
4. Dutch Freedom
The Dutch prided themselves on their devotion to liberty; freedom of the press and a broad religious toleration were unique to the Dutch.
Amsterdam was a refuge for many persecuted Protestants and Jews.
New Netherland was a military post, not governed democratically, but the citizens possessed rights.
Slaves had some rights, women enjoyed more independence than their counterparts in other colonies, and there was more religious toleration.
5. Settling New Netherland
Cheap livestock and free land after six years of labor were promised in an attempt to attract settlers.
6. New Netherland and the Indians
The Dutch came to trade, not to conquer, and were determined to treat the Indians more humanely, although conflict was not completely avoided.
Columbian Americans 15,000 60,000 roads networks irrigation literacy metal Mound Poverty Point Mississippi Ohio River Cahokia 10,000-30,000 1200 Hopi Zuni multiple-family Mexico corn squash beans fishing hunting warred alliances diversity Religious farming hunting spiritual respect authority foreign common economic commodity Wealth premarital matrilineal agricultural religion Europeans use weak mistreated freedom societies ownership Christ Christian liberty obedience submissive hierarchical society rank worship press Zheng He 1405 1433 sixth caravel compass quadrant fifteenth posts factories plantations accelerated Vasco da Gama Ferdinand Isabella 1492 Hispaniola Nicolas de Ovando Amerigo Vespucci America Gutenberg's 1430s Newfoundland 1497 Panama Pacific Ocean sail world Cortés Pizarro Aztec Inca plants animals smallpox influenza wars enslavement disease absolutism viceroys Catholic Church Gold silver social mobility outnumbered hybrid Mestizos Justifications superiority missionary violence Islam Protestant Reformation true faith gold silver Bartolomé de Las Casas human one 1542 New Laws Black Legend Ponce de León Mexico Hernando de Soto's forts 1560s pirates 1763 4,000 Juan de Oñate 1598 Acoma 1680 Christianity Samuel de Champlain 19,000 humane disease fur trading métis women French Henry Hudson Harbor Netherlands Manhattan Netherlands Dutch liberty press religious Amsterdam Protestants Jews democratically livestock labor trade conquer humanely
30 July 2019
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