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Handout #3- Chemical Hair Relaxer Vocabulary and Notes

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VOCABULARY Viscosity is the measurement of the thickness or thinness of a liquid that affects how the fluid flows. (Page 583) Neutralization deactivates the relaxer and lowers pH levels. (Page 587) Lanthionization is the process of converting a di-sulfide bond into a lanthionine bond by removing a sulfur atom. (Page 585) Base cream (protective base cream) is an oily cream used to protect the skin and scalp during hair relaxing. Applied to the entire hairline and around the ears even with a no base relaxer. (Page 587) No base relaxers contain a protective base cream that is designed to melt at body temperature causing the cream to settle onto the scalp in a thin, oily protective coating. (Page 587) NOTES: Chemical hair relaxing is a process or service that rearranges the structure of curly hair. The purpose is to produce a straighter or smoother form. Just like permanents, all relaxers change the shape of the hair by breaking disulfide bonds. The two most common types of chemical hair relaxers break these bonds in different ways. A disulfide bond consists of two sulfur atoms. Thio relaxers break the disulfide bonds in the hair and the neutralizer reforms the disulfide bonds. This causes less damage to the hair than hydroxide relaxers and allows them to be compatible with permanent waving. Thio and Hydroxide Relaxers both of pH higher than that of hair, meaning they are more alkaline. Unlike thio relaxers, hydroxide relaxers remove a sulfur atom from the disulfide bond, converting it into a lanthionine bond. Because of this the disulfide bond is permanently broken and cannot be reformed. This make hydroxide perms incompatible with permanent waving and the hair will no longer hold a curl. Acid-balanced shampoos or lotions are used to neutralize the hydroxide ions and lower the pH of hair, though the hair will still be more alkaline than it was before the hydroxide relaxer. Hydroxide relaxers are also much more irritating to the scalp, because of this they are usually sold in base and no-base formulas. Base relaxers require the application of a protective base cream to the entire scalp prior to the application of the relaxer. No base relaxers contain base creams that melt onto the scalp at body temperature and do not require protective base creams to be applied. Mild-strength relaxers are designed for fine, color-treated or damaged hair. Regular-relaxers are designed for normal hair texture with medium natural curl. Super-strength relaxers should only be used for maximum straightening on very coarse, curly and resistant hair. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS What are the 2 purposes of chemical hair relaxing? 1. Rearrange the structure of curly hair into a straighter form 2. Rearrange the structure of curly hair into a smoother form. List 3 similarities of thio and hydroxide relaxers. 1. Higher pH than hair- alkaline 2. Use of neutralizers (lotions or shampoos) to stop chemical action and lower pH levels 3. Rearrange curl pattern by breaking disulfide bonds Describe 4 differences between thio and hydroxide relaxers.. 1. Thio- breaks and rebuilds di-sulfide bonds, Hydroxide- converts di-sulfide bonds to Lanthionine bonds 2. Thio- compatible with soft curl perms, hydroxide- unfit for perming and will not hold curl 3. Thio- less damaging to hair, hydroxide- more damaging to hair 4. Thio- less irritating to scalp, hydroxide- because they are more irritating to the scalp they are available in base and no base options Explain the 3 different relaxer strengths. 1. Mild Strength- formulated for fine, color-treated or damaged hair 2. Regular Strength- intended for normal texture hair with a medium natural curl 3. Super Strength- for maximum straightening on very coarse, extremely curly, and resistant hair.

Viscosity thickness thinness flows deactivates lowers Lanthionization converting removing sulfur protect skin scalp Applied hairline ears No base relaxers protective rearranges curly straighter smoother change disulfide sulfur break reforms less hydroxide compatible higher remove converting permanently cannot incompatible curl Acid-balanced hydroxide lower alkaline irritating base no-base protective base cream entire scalp contain protective base creams Mild-strength color-treated Regular-relaxers medium Super-strength maximum coarse resistant straighter smoother Higher neutralizers stop lower disulfide breaks rebuilds converts compatible unfit less more less more base no base fine color-treated damaged normal medium maximum very coarse extremely curly resistant

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15 February 2017

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Chemical Relaxers

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